The notion of trophoblast refers to all the cells that make up the outer layer of the blastocyst (a state of embryogenesis, that is, of embryo growth) and that is integral to what will later be the placenta . The trophoblast, which begins to form in the early stages of pregnancy, is responsible for providing nutrients to the embryo.
Various classes of placental cells form the trophoblast, which is responsible for enabling the embryo to implant in the endometrium of the uterus . When it is time to give birth, the woman and his son reject the trophoblast through an immune process. The trophoblast, however, is usually visible as a kind of membrane that covers the newborn.
It is important to note that a hormone secreted by the trophoblast provides the possibility to warn the state of gravity of a woman through blood or urine tests . This hormone, key to the development of pregnancy, is secreted by the outer layer of the trophoblast, which is called syncytiotrophoblast .
This is in direct contact with what is the mother's blood and has the peculiarity that is responsible for covering the entire surface of the placenta. It plays a very important role as it facilitates the exchange of nutrients between what the woman and her baby are, as well as gases and waste.
The inner layer of the trophoblast, described as unicellular, is known as citrotrophoblast , although you can also receive the name of langhans cape . This cap allows the embryonic chorion to attach to the endometrium.
During pregnancy, the doctor may indicate a trophoblast study to analyze the condition of the fetus. The trophoblast biopsy , in this sense, it consists of taking a tissue sample to examine it in a laboratory . This study allows to discover chromosomal disorders or a disease in genes, for example.
From this mentioned biopsy it is necessary to know another series of interesting data:
• It is done using a relevant ultrasound.
• It can be carried out after two months of pregnancy.
• It can be developed through two different techniques: through the vagina or through an extraction through the abdomen.
• Occasionally, it is necessary to apply local anesthesia to the pregnant woman so that this action will not bother her, which will last a few minutes and in which no type of liquid is extracted.
• There are several advantages of using this method and not another. Specifically, it is praised that it can be done in very early stages of pregnancy and that it gives very successful results.
• However, it is also true that this trophoblast biopsy poses a higher risk than in amniocentesis so that the woman may suffer a miscarriage.
It should also be stressed that there is what is known as gestational trophoblastic disease that comes to alter what is the tissue that will later become the placenta. That can be of several types such as the so-called molar pregnancy.