It is called toyotism yet chain production mode that replaced the Fordism in the early years of the decade of 1970 . To understand the concept, therefore, it is necessary to know what the idea of chain production.
East process is to use a assembly line or assembly line . In this way, each worker performs a single function without moving, eliminating downtime and favoring specialization.
Fordism, in this context, aimed to reduce costs and increase production. Thanks to the amount of goods produced, the supply increases, prices are reduced and the market (since more people can access the goods).
As for toyotism, it is a method of organizing times in the industry that introduces changes to Fordism. His driver was Taiichi Ohno , an engineer of Toyota .
The toyotismo bets to avoid the actions that are not necessary. Based on the precept of "just in time" (or “Just in time” , in English), toyotism seeks to produce only what it needs and at the precise moment it is needed. Thus, the job It becomes more flexible and mechanization loses preponderance.
In other words: while Fordism aimed to mass produce and store goods, Toyota tries to start producing when the good is already sold. That is to say that the order is received first and then the production . For the mechanism to succeed, it is essential avoid delays (due to bureaucracy, errors, damage to equipment, etc.).
Toyotism was one of the fundamental pillars of the system of production in Japan and, after the first oil crisis , little by little it was replacing Fordism as a reference of chain production. This oil crisis took place since August 23, 1973, as a result of the decision by the OPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) of not continuing to export oil to countries that had been on Israel's side in the Yom Kippur war, in which he faced Syria and Egypt.
The flexibility of Toyota itself has several advantages over Fordism and is reflected in an increase in productivity with respect to the methods used so far, both those that generated dead spots within the chain for keeping several employees inactive cyclically like those who chose to a job without rest to occupy until the last second of each shift with the production specialized .
This Japanese chain production model was responsible for the rising sun industry will go from a state of underdevelopment to a position of world power In a few decades. In its essence are certain principles that managed to reverse the crisis prevailing in Fordism:
* constant rotation of workers to occupy various roles and a great flexibility ;
* promote teamwork instead of isolated activity, to improve performance through the incentive arising from the exchange, and the enrichment of learning from others;
* the system just in time, mentioned above, manages to revalue the relationship between the time needed to produce an article and its circulation. Besides, the cellar It is no longer necessary, given this form of production that always remains close to the stock 0, which also reduces the costs necessary to store merchandise;
* Product prices can be reduced due to savings during the manufacturing process, and this increases sales and allows to reach social classes with lower income.