The stratosphere , also mentioned as stratosphere (with accent on the syllable -faith), is one of the layers of the atmosphere : the gaseous mantle that surrounds the planet land . This is the sector that extends between 12 and 50 kilometers high.
Next to the troposphere and the mesosphere , the stratosphere forms the homosphere , which is the set of the three layers closest to the surface . In the specific case of the stratosphere, it is located in the middle zone of the homosphere.
Due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by ozone molecules, in the stratosphere the temperature increases with altitude. On the other hand, it is an atmospheric layer with a low level of humidity .
In the stratosphere is the call ozone layer , a sector with a high concentration of ozone that absorbs most of the high frequency ultraviolet radiation. The use of certain chemical compounds generates, for years, a weakening of the ozone layer, known as ozone hole .
The ozone hole makes the stratosphere no longer absorb ultraviolet radiation as before, so these radiations reach the surface in greater quantity, causing various problems to the people , such as increases in the number of cases of skin cancer, cataracts and other disorders.
It is important to mention that the ozone layer is not really a cap that can be detected in the stratosphere, but a strip with a higher concentration of ozone than the rest of the atmosphere.
Between the troposphere and the stratosphere there is a transition zone that is known as tropopause , in which the temperature it tends to increase due to ozone and its relationship with the ultraviolet radiation that comes from the sun.
Another of the phenomena related to the stratosphere is the impact that it suffers due to the passage of airplanes, since they usually move at an average height of 11 kilometers, precisely between the tropopause and the beginning of the stratosphere. With the growth of air traffic in recent decades, emissions of certain substances that remain between the high and low stratosphere have increased, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, soot and sulfur oxides and nitrogen.
Currently, airplanes only generate up to 3% of the total emissions associated with the greenhouse effect , which does not have a considerable impact on global warming. This does not mean that they do not cause any major problems; on the contrary, since the gases they emit remain in the upper part of the troposphere, water vapor causes an increase in the probability of cloud formation of type cirrus, capable of retaining a greater amount of heat on the planet, which does contribute to global warming.
Another cause of environmental problems is the emission of nitrogen oxides, also from the planes , something that is directly linked to the elimination of ozone in the stratosphere. Although the greenhouse gases emitted by these machines do not live long, they reach the stratosphere because they are released very close to it.
In the stratosphere, the air has a density equivalent to 90% of the present on the surface of the Earth. In its lower layers, its temperature has an average of -56 degrees Celsius, and the speed reached by its air currents is around 200 kilometers per hour. As a curiosity, some research has revealed the presence of small microorganisms from outer space that live in the stratosphere.