A dystopia is a imaginary representation of a society of the future whose characteristics are undesirable . It is, therefore, the opposite of a Utopia .
While a utopia is a society ideal, a dystopia is a negative society. In other words: utopia is an impossible desire to achieve and dystopia, a possibility whose concretion should be avoided.
The first use of the term dystopia, although it has been in its equivalent in the English language, it is attributed to John Stuart Mill , an English politician, economist and philosopher, in the framework of a parliamentary intervention in which he gave a speech, in 1868. Although this word has not appeared in the Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy for a long time, it was finally included by the writer José María Merino , who describes her as a representation of a society of the future whose moral alienation can be explained from its negative features.
Numerous writers, throughout the history , have imagined dystopia. One of the best-known dystopian societies is that created by the British George Orwell (1903-1950) in his novel “1984” . Orwell thought a world ruled by Big Brother , present in the lives of citizens constantly. In Orwellian dystopia there is a Thought Police (which punishes those who think things contrary to those accepted by the ruling party) and even a newspeak It eliminates words that should not be thought of.
“Fahrenheit 451” of the American Ray bradbury (1920-2012), is another book that presents a dystopia. In this case, the writer developed a society where the function of firefighters is to burn books because, according to the rulers, they produce anguish in citizenship and encourage people to ask questions of the reality . Thus, if people fail to access books, they are happy.
He movie theater It also usually shows dystopia. One of the most popular is the society that imagined George miller in his movie "Mad Max" : a planet submerged in chaos where motorcycle gangs control the roads and face the Central Force Patrol .
In the industry of videogame , dystopia occupies a very important place. Although it is not the most popular choice of developers when creating imaginary worlds, there are certain series whose relevance is undeniable, and among them Deus Ex . The first of the four main games games of this saga had among its creators the acclaimed writer and producer Warren spector .
Throughout the four deliveries of Deus Ex, we approach several of the elements that define dystopia in a natural and spontaneous way, as if we were really there. One of them is Darkness ; We can find it in most of the works of this group, and it helps us to understand the deterioration situation that humanity has suffered, the lack of hope of its characters, the loss of certain values.
The darkness in dystopia can be seen both graphically and symbolically: in video games and movies, it is rare to see a scene in broad daylight but we also see in the characters a grief that seems to have taken away the illusion. He fanaticism It is another of the characteristic elements of dystopian stories, and can be represented by new religions or groups that seek to "defend themselves" from the attacks of their supposed enemies.
Without a doubt, the technology It occupies a very important place in dystopia. But it is not imposed by means of special effects that seek to leave us speechless, but seems to be perfectly integrated into the daily life of the characters.