It is called electrostatics to the specialization of the physical focused on the analysis of the systems that form the bodies with electric charge in balance . These bodies, having electric charge, cause reactions of rejection and attraction , generating the so-called electrostatic phenomena .
Several centuries before Christ , Thales of Miletus discovered the property They have the materials to attract other objects. This was achieved through experiments with amber, rubbing the substance on some surfaces.
When an object accumulates electric charges , produces static electricity . This accumulation can be generated if two materials rub each other, since electrons pass from one surface to another by the difference in energy levels (the two bodies will be charged, one with a negative charge and the other with a positive charge). With the contact, a electrostatic discharge : an electric current that circulates momentarily between objects that have different potential.
On the other hand, if a neutral element is touched by another that has an electric charge, both will result in the same type of load .
The electrically charged material that attracts or rejects electrons of other material produces a induced load . In the second element, an area with a higher positive charge that causes attraction is developed. This can be seen when a balloon is rubbed and then held to the wall by the attractive force that derives from the opposite charges of both surfaces.
The electrostatic phenomena can be exploited with some benefit, as happens in the field of xerography . In other contexts, as in the electronics , are unwanted consequences that can generate various kinds of damage.
The process of Print called xerography (to be pronounced serography), use dry electrostatics in order to reproduce or copy an image or document. Its name derives from two Greek terms that refer to "dry writing." His invention took place in 1938 by an American physicist and businessman named Chester Floyd Carlson , who just a decade later got the financial support of a company to develop and market its creation.
With respect to phenomena Unwanted electrostatics, there are many and each of them should be considered within its scope. For example, one of the most common problems in the world of work revolves around the discharges suffered by personnel, something very common in offices where the level of static electricity of objects is very high.
The problem occurs when an employee approaches a material whose load is very high, such as a roll of film in an area where it is rolled or unwound. This exposition It is not harmless at all: it can cause cramps or even diseases, such as being semicircular lipoatrophy, a disorder of the subcutaneous tissue that causes depressions in the muscles, specifically in your anterolateral face.
This leads us to understand that companies must invest time and money in processes to eliminate electrostatics in their facilities, and for this they must hire the relevant services, or create a department that specifically deals with this problem.
When an employee suffers a discharge Electrostatic in the office, an electric arc could be generated between it and the charged object, which can lead to a dangerous situation. On the other hand, the individual can accumulate part of this burden if it is kept a short distance from the source; in this case, the arc will be generated only when it approaches a grounded metal part. A suitable product to solve these phenomena is the electrostatic removal bar , which can neutralize loads within a maximum radius of one meter.