The idea from gramema it is used in the field of linguistics to refer to a grammatical morpheme (It is worth mentioning that this is the name it receives in traditional grammar). It is a value linked to a grammar category.
A morpheme It is the minimum unit that can be isolated in a morphological analysis. In the case of gramemas, they are morphemes that happen to lexemes (concept known as base morpheme in the traditional grammar) and that allow to indicate the grammatical accidents that affect these lexemes. There are grammes of mode, person, time and number.
Precisely, the grammar is a unit of the word that does not have a meaning of type lexicon, that is to say that it cannot be defined in itself as a word, but rather it fulfills a grammatical or syntactic function to complete or specify the meaning of a word.
Take the case of the term "Cats". This word contains the lexeme "Gat"the gramema "or" (which indicates the male gender) and the grammar "S" (necessary to indicate the plural). In a similar sense, the term "user" is formed with the lexeme "User" and the gramema "to" (female).
It is worth mentioning that in certain words its base morpheme does not require the use of a grammar to indicate its gender, since it does not admit more than one option: while there are "cats" and "cats", there are only "songs". Therefore, the lexeme "song" it only needs to be combined with the gramema "is" to give rise to the only plural of the word. In addition, lexemes can be dependent or independent, while Gramemas are always dependent : the lexeme "and" it depends on grammar like "ar" or "uve"; the lexeme "Sun" it does not depend on any other morpheme to complete its meaning as "the star that is in the center of our galaxy"; grammes cannot be used in isolation in communication .
Gramemas can also be added to verbs to give them a meaning linked to time, voice and mode. These morphemes do not have morphological independence and must join certain lexemes so that the meanings are specified.
It should be noted that, in addition to adding a meaning to a lexeme, grammar can also establish brands which are linked to the agreement between words and phrases.
According to their characteristics , it is possible to classify the gramemas as verbal grammar (related to mode, number, person and time), nominal gramemas (indicate the number and gender), derivative grammar (they have no morphological independence and must join certain lexemes) and zero grammar (no evidence of marks in the lexeme). Derivative grammar, in turn, can be heterogeneous or homogeneous .
We have seen the nominal gramemas in some of the previous examples, fulfilling their function to complement lexemes for the formation of complete nouns and adjectives, contributing their gender and their number. This is a fundamental aspect of our language, which distinguishes it from many others in which nouns and adjectives have no gender or, in some cases, number. Yes, it may seem impossible to imagine but in certain languages, given the word that designates the concept of "cat", for example, there is no way of knowing if we are talking about one or more or whether they are male or female.
Verbal gramemas help us to express accidents that in our language they do not correspond to nouns or adjectives, such as being the person, time and mode, but also for the number. For example: starting from the verb "to eat", which in itself is composed of the lexema "com" and the grammar "er", we can say "as", for the first singular person of the present tense in the indicative way, or "eat" , for the third plural person of the past tense of the subjunctive mode.