The idea of reproduction is linked to process and the result of reproducing , a verb with several meanings. In this case, we are interested in focusing on its meaning within the group of living beings: reproducing consists in conceiving a new organism that has the same biological characteristics as its parent.
It is known as sexual reproduction to the conception of a descendant from the genetic combination of two beings that are part of the same species. This is the natural mechanism that animals use (including human being ) to reproduce: requires a sexual intercourse or mating to enable fertilization.
The asexual reproduction Instead, it develops when, from an organism that has already reached a certain state from maturity , a cell or part of its body that allows the production of a new individual through the mitosis . This type of reproduction, therefore, does not require the participation of gametes and is developed with a single parent.
There are different types of asexual reproduction that carry forward both animals and microorganisms and plants. In the case of animals , we can mention asexual reproduction processes as the following:
* fragmentation : it is also known by the name of cleavage, and is carried out when an animal is divided into two or more parts, all of which are capable of carrying out the complete reconstruction of a organism . Although the most normal thing is that the process is carried out before the division (which is called paratomy and it's done voluntarily), sometimes it also happens after the cut (it's called architomy and usually occurs as a result of an accident);
* budding : this term derives from Latin geminus, which can be translated as "twin", and occurs when an individual develops certain prominences, which grow, develop and give rise to new independent organisms, which have the option to separate their bodies from the parent or remain united, so that forms a colony . This process is an unequal division (it is considered a asymmetric mitosis) and we can find it in yeasts, among other unicellular organisms.
The plants On the other hand, they can appeal to processes such as:
* formation of mitospores : these spores originate through mitosis, and this form of asexual reproduction is very common in mosses, fungi, lichens and ferns . Some mitospores move through flagella or cilia; others travel passively by wind, water or using animals as a means of transport. This process can originate in a sporgenic organ (outside the plant) or within certain organs that are known as sporangia;
* artificial multiplication : In this case, we humans play a fundamental role. One of the techniques most common is the use of grafts , fragments of the stem that can be introduced into a stem or trunk of an individual of the same or another species, and is very often used for asexual reproduction of ornamental plants and fruit trees.
Microorganisms, on the other hand, develop asexual reproduction procedures such as sporulation , which is also known by the name of sporogenesis and can be carried out through spores or endospores. The trigger for this process may be the adversity of the environment (lack of light or nutrients, for example), although it also occurs naturally as part of the life cycle.
It should be noted that asexual reproduction is more fast and simple that sexual reproduction: however, since the offspring lack genetic variability, it does not allow the development of selection natural since all individuals are identical.