In the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE ), the first meaning of the term load alludes to act and the result of loading . The concept, anyway, has multiple uses.
It is known as electric charge at the level of electricity Present in a body. Recall that electricity is a force manifested by rejection or attraction between charged particles, which is generated by the existence of so-called elementary particles. protons (positive charge) and electrons (negative charge).
It can be said that the electric charge, therefore, is a physical property of certain particles. That matter with electric charge generates a electromagnetic field which, in turn, influences it: there is an interaction between this field and the electric charge. While electric charges of different types attract, those of the same type repel.
The science has shown that, within the framework of a physical process, the electric charge present in an isolated system is always maintained stable . This assumes that the result of the sum of the negative charges and the positive charges never changes. Or put another way: that the creation or elimination of electric charge in an isolated system is not recorded.
The electric charge unit is called coulomb . This physical magnitude, whose denomination honors Charles-Augustin de Coulomb , expresses the amount of electricity of an element. A coulomb is defined as the level of charge that an electric current with a intensity of one amp transports in a second.
As with many concepts that nowadays are framed in the different sciences, the human being began to experiment with his surroundings and to look beyond for centuries. Already in the Ancient Greece For example, it was known that if they rubbed amber against a piece of animal skin it acquired the property of attracting certain light weight bodies, such as feathers and pieces of straw. This discovery was in charge of Thales of Miletus , a philosopher who lived between the seventh and sixth centuries a. C., that is, about two and a half millennia ago.
If we travel back in time to a more recent time, the doctor William Gilbert , originally from England, observed in the seventeenth century that certain materials behaved in a manner similar to that described in the previous paragraph, although in these cases the attraction could be exercised on heavier bodies. It is important to note that amber receives in Greek a name whose pronunciation approximates ēlektron, which is why Gilbert decided that all these materials were considered "electric."
It was then that the concepts of electricity and electric charge. It is worth mentioning that William Gilbert did such a wide work that he left studies in which we can clearly differentiate the phenomena electric magnetic.
Stephen Gray , another scientist born in England, was the one who discovered that if certain elements are connected with electrical materials they produce phenomena of attraction and repulsion . For its part, the French physicist Charles du Fay he was the first to speak of two different types of electric charge, although only with studies of Benjamin Franklin it could be seen that after rubbing two bodies the electricity of each one was distributed in certain points where there was a greater degree of attraction , and therefore decided to use the concepts of loading positive and negative.
These observations Only in the first half of the 19th century they were formally raised, partly thanks to the experiments that Michael Faraday , a British physicist, conducted on electrolysis, which opened the doors to the study of the link between electricity and matter.