He psychoanalysis It is a method created by the Austrian doctor and neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856 -1939 ) which aims at research and treatment of mental illness . It is based on the analysis of the unconscious sexual conflicts that originate in childhood .
Psychoanalytic doctrine holds that the instinctive impulses that are repressed by consciousness they remain in the unconscious and affect the subject. It is important to keep in mind that the unconscious is not observable by the patient: the psychoanalyst is the one who must make such unconscious conflicts accessible through the interpretation of dreams and failed acts and the free association .
According to Freud, free association was the fundamental rule of psychoanalysis; It is a technique that involves the patient expressing during the sessions of therapy, all your ideas, emotions, thoughts and images as they are presented, without restrictions or arrangements. Before this opening, the psychoanalyst must determine what things, within those manifestations, reflect an unconscious conflict. It is worth mentioning that, despite containing the term free, this practice is also subject to the decisions of our brain.
It is interesting to note that psychoanalysis has detected several defense mechanisms which consist of unreasonable psychological procedures aimed at minimizing the consequences of an event that generates stress . Let's see some of them below:
* the repression , which keeps away from the awareness the painful elements;
* the condensation , the dreams that combine different fragments in the same element;
* he displacement , which occurs when ideas are displace from an unacceptable or dangerous fact to an acceptable one.
During a treatment In psychoanalysis, patients often discover things about themselves that they do not want to accept, or that are too difficult for them to understand; many times, given such findings, they flee terrified of therapy, never to return. It is important that therapists take precedence over these situations, which are especially common in cases of people who have not been psychoanalyzed before.
During a session, psychologists can intervene to a certain extent, and this depends on the school to which they belong; The most common is that the patient is given the necessary time to delve inside, gradually discover details of his person that have remained hidden for years, and guide them so that they understand them, accept them and work on them.
In addition to giving space for patients to gradually discover the roots of their problems and try to understand them, it is recommended not to propose violent, surprising measures that lead to sudden and unexpected changes, since this usually generates a negative and counterproductive effect. Often psychoanalysts use the help of psychiatrists, when they consider that a person can benefit from the consumption of a drug. This decision is appropriate in many cases, but it is essential that they do not communicate it to their patients without preparing them for it.
There are very different opinions regarding therapy: many people fear seeking help in psychoanalysis, because they believe that this resource corresponds only to someone with serious disorders Mental
However, before stages of deep depression, even unbelievers come to the couch, but not without certain reservations; This is a very important step, a delicate decision that can fall apart if the right treatment is not received. When someone feels vulnerable, the last thing they need is to sharply criticize their behavior or their ideas, especially if this comes from a being we trust.
Finally, the phenomenon known as transfer refers to the moment of therapy in which the patient transfers in the figure of his psychologist certain experiences lived in the past, usually related to the distortion of figures paternal and maternal.